All Issue

2022 Vol.13, Issue 4 Preview Page

General Article

30 December 2022. pp. 414-435
L.M. Cook and T.A. Larsen, Towards a performance-based approach for multifunctional green roofs: An interdisciplinary review. Building and Environment. 188 (2021), p. 107489. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.107489
G. Zhang, B.J. He, and B.J. Dewancker, The maintenance of prefabricated green roofs for preserving cooling performance: A field measurement in the subtropical city of Hangzhou, China. Sustainable Cities and Society. 61 (2020), p. 102314. 10.1016/j.scs.2020.102314
H.F. Castleton, V. Stovin, S.B.M. Beck, and J.B. Davison, Green roofs Building energy savings and the potential for retrofit. Energy and Buildings. 42 (2010), pp. 1582-1591. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.05.004
M. Zhao, J. Srebric, R.D. Berghage, and K.A. Dressler, Accumulated snow layer influence on the heat transfer process through green roof assemblies. Building and Environment. 87 (2015), pp. 82-91. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.12.018
O. Saadatian, K. Sopian, E. Salleh, C.H. Lim, S. Riffat, E. Saadatian, A. Toudeshki, and M.Y. Sulaiman, A review of energy aspects of green roofs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 23 (2013), pp. 155-168. 10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.022
B. Yan, The Research of Ecological and Economic Benefits for Green Roof. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 71-78 (2011), pp. 2763-2766. 10.4028/
V. Costanzo, G. Evola, and L. Marletta, Energy savings in buildings or UHI mitigation? Comparison between green roofs and cool roofs. Energy and Buildings. 114 (2016), pp. 247-255. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.053
A.H. Refahi and H. Talkhabi, Investigating the effective factors on the reduction of energy consumption in residential buildings with green roofs. Renewable Energy. 80 (2015), pp. 595-603. 10.1016/j.renene.2015.02.030
Q. Wang and S. Holmberg, A methodology to assess energy-demand savings and cost effectiveness of retrofitting in existing Swedish residential buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society. 14 (2014), pp. 254-266. 10.1016/j.scs.2014.10.002
C.Y. Jim and S.W. Tsang, Biophysical properties and thermal performance of an intensive green roof. Building and Environment. 46 (2011), pp. 1263-1274. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.12.013
R. Martens, B. Bass, and S.S. Alcazar, Roof-envelope ratio impact on green roof energy performance. Urban Ecosystems. 11 (2008), pp. 399-408. 10.1007/s11252-008-0053-z
M. Zinzi and S. Agnoli, Cool and green roofs. An energy and comfort comparison between passive cooling and mitigation urban heat island techniques for residential buildings in the Mediterranean region. Energy and Buildings. 55 (2012), pp. 66-76. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.024
I. Jaffal, S.-E. Ouldboukhitine, and R. Belarbi, A comprehensive study of the impact of green roofs on building energy performance. Renewable Energy. 43 (2012), pp. 157-164. 10.1016/j.renene.2011.12.004
V. Azeñas, J. Cuxart, R. Picos, H. Medrano, G. Simó, A. López-Grifol, and J. Gulías, Thermal regulation capacity of a green roof system in the mediterranean region: The effects of vegetation and irrigation level. Energy and Buildings. 164 (2018), pp. 226-238. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.01.010
A.J. Bates, J.P. Sadler, and R. Mackay, Vegetation development over four years on two green roofs in the UK. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 12 (2013), pp. 98-108. 10.1016/j.ufug.2012.12.003
M.M. Liu, Probabilistic prediction of green roof energy performance under parameter uncertainty. Energy. 77 (2014), pp. 667-674. 10.1016/
C.F. Chen, Performance evaluation and development strategies for green roofs in Taiwan: A review. Ecological Engineering. 52 (2013), pp. 51-58. 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.083
S. Parizotto and R. Lamberts, Investigation of green roof thermal performance in temperate climate: A case study of an experimental building in Florianópolis city, Southern Brazil. Energy and Buildings. 43 (2011), pp. 1712-1722. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.014
H. He and C.Y. Jim, Simulation of thermodynamic transmission in green roof ecosystem. Ecological Modelling. 221 (2010), pp. 2949-2958. 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.09.002
W. Yang, Z. Wang, J. Cui, Z. Zhu, and X. Zhao, Comparative study of the thermal performance of the novel green(planting) roofs against other existing roofs. Sustainable Cities and Society. 16 (2015), pp. 1-12. 10.1016/j.scs.2015.01.002
K.L. Getter, D.B. Rowe, J.A. Andresen, and I.S. Wichman, Seasonal heat flux properties of an extensive green roof in a Midwestern U.S. climate. Energy and Buildings. 43 (2011), pp. 3548-3557. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.018
A. Gagliano, M. Detommaso, F. Nocera, and G. Evola, A multi-criteria methodology for comparing the energy and environmental behavior of cool, green and traditional roofs. Building and Environment. 90 (2015), pp. 71-81. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.02.043
S.W. Tsang and C.Y. Jim, Theoretical evaluation of thermal and energy performance of tropical green roofs. Energy. 36 (2011), pp. 3590-3598. 10.1016/
A. Niachou, K. Papakonstantinou, M. Santamouris, A. Tsangrassoulis, and G. Mihalakakou, Analysis of the green roof thermal properties and investigation of its energy performance. Energy and Buildings. 33 (2001), pp. 719-729. 10.1016/S0378-7788(01)00062-7
D.J. Sailor, T.B. Elley, and M. Gibson, Exploring the building energy impacts of green roof design decisions - a modeling study of buildings in four distinct climates. Journal of Building Physics. 35 (2012), pp. 372-391. 10.1177/1744259111420076
A. Nardini, S. Andri, and M. Crasso, Influence of substrate depth and vegetation type on temperature and water runoff mitigation by extensive green roofs: Shrubs versus herbaceous plants. Urban Ecosystems. 15 (2012), pp. 697-708. 10.1007/s11252-011-0220-5
M. Zhao, P.C. Tabares-Velasco, J. Srebric, S. Komarneni, and R. Berghage, Effects of plant and substrate selection on thermal performance of green roofs during the summer. Building and Environment. 78 (2014), pp. 199-211. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.02.011
S.E. Ouldboukhitine, R. Belarbi, and R. Djedjig, Characterization of green roof components: Measurements of thermal and hydrological properties. Building and Environment. 56 (2012), pp. 78-85. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.02.024
F. Ardente, M. Beccali, M. Cellura, and M. Mistretta, Energy and environmental benefits in public buildings as a result of retrofit actions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15 (2011), pp. 460-470. 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.022
P. Karachaliou, M. Santamouris, and H. Pangalou, Experimental and numerical analysis of the energy performance of a large scale intensive green roof system installed on an office building in Athens. Energy and Buildings. 114 (2016), pp. 256-264. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.055
A.F. Speak, J.J. Rothwell, S.J. Lindley, and C.L. Smith, Reduction of the urban cooling effects of an intensive green roof due to vegetation damage. Urban Climate. 3 (2013), pp. 40-55. 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.01.001
J. Darkwa, G. Kokogiannakis, and G. Suba, Effectiveness of an intensive green roof in a sub-tropical region. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology. 34 (2013), pp. 417-432. 10.1177/0143624412462144
M.T. Simmons, B. Gardiner, S. Windhager, and J. Tinsley, Green roofs are not created equal: The hydrologic and thermal performance of six different extensive green roofs and reflective and non-reflective roofs in a sub-tropical climate. Urban Ecosystems. 11 (2008), pp. 339-348. 10.1007/s11252-008-0069-4
R. Fioretti, A. Palla, L.G. Lanza, and P. Principi, Green roof energy and water related performance in the Mediterranean climate. Building and Environment. 45 (2010), pp. 1890-1904. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.03.001
W. Nyuk Hien, T. Puay Yok, and C. Yu, Study of thermal performance of extensive rooftop greenery systems in the tropical climate. Building and Environment. 42 (2007), pp. 25-54. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.07.030
U. Berardi, The outdoor microclimate benefits and energy saving resulting from green roofs retrofits. Energy and Buildings. 121 (2016), pp. 217-229. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.03.021
B.S. Lin, C.C. Yu, A.T. Su, and Y.J. Lin, Impact of climatic conditions on the thermal effectiveness of an extensive green roof. Building and Environment. 67 (2013), pp. 26-33. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.04.026
G. Pérez, A. Vila, L. Rincón, C. Solé, and L.F. Cabeza, Use of rubber crumbs as drainage layer in green roofs as potential energy improvement material. Applied Energy. 97 (2012), pp. 347-354. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.051
J. Coma, G. Pérez, A. Castell, C. Solé, and L.F. Cabeza, Green roofs as passive system for energy savings in buildings during the cooling period: use of rubber crumbs as drainage layer. Energy Efficiency. 7 (2014), pp. 841-849. 10.1007/s12053-014-9262-x
F. Ascione, N. Bianco, F. de' Rossi, G. Turni, and G.P. Vanoli, Green roofs in European climates. Are effective solutions for the energy savings in air-conditioning?. Applied Energy. 104 (2013), pp. 845-859. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.068
G. Heidarinejad and A. Esmaili, Numerical simulation of the dual effect of green roof thermal performance. Energy Conversion and Management. 106 (2015), pp. 1418-1425. 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.020
V.W.Y. Tam, J. Wang, and K.N. Le, Thermal insulation and cost effectiveness of green-roof systems: An empirical study in Hong Kong. Building and Environment. 110 (2016), pp. 46-54. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.09.032
S. Wilkinson and R.C. Feitosa, Retrofitting housing with lightweight green roof technology in Sydney, Australia, and Rio de Janeiro. Brazil, Sustainability (Switzerland). 7 (2015), pp. 1081-1098. 10.3390/su7011081
S.E. Ouldboukhitine, R. Belarbi, I. Jaffal, and A. Trabelsi, Assessment of green roof thermal behavior: A coupled heat and mass transfer model. Building and Environment. 46 (2011), pp. 2624-2631. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.06.021
J.S. MacIvor, L. Margolis, M. Perotto, and J.A.P. Drake, Air temperature cooling by extensive green roofs in Toronto Canada. Ecological Engineering. 95 (2016), pp. 36-42. 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.050
P. La Roche and U. Berardi, Comfort and energy savings with active green roofs. Energy and Buildings. 82 (2014), pp. 492-504. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.055
M. Santamouris, C. Pavlou, P. Doukas, G. Mihalakakou, A. Synnefa, A. Hatzibiros, and P. Patargias, Investigating and analysing the energy and environmental performance of an experimental greenroof system installed in a nursery school building in Athens, Greece. Energy. 32 (2007), pp. 1781-1788. 10.1016/
J. Coma, G. Pérez, C. Solé, A. Castell, and L.F. Cabeza, Thermal assessment of extensive green roofs as passive tool for energy savings in buildings. Renewable Energy. 85 (2016), pp. 1106-1115. 10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.074
C.M. Silva, M.G. Gomes, and M. Silva, Green roofs energy performance in Mediterranean climate. Energy and Buildings. 116 (2016), pp. 318-325. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.01.012
C. Feng, Q. Meng, and Y. Zhang, Theoretical and experimental analysis of the energy balance of extensive green roofs. Energy and Buildings. 42 (2010), pp. 959-965. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.12.014
S. Pandey, D.A. Hindoliya, and R. Mod, Experimental investigation on green roofs over buildings. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 8 (2013), pp. 37-42. 10.1093/ijlct/ctr044
P.C. Tabares-Velasco, M. Zhao, N. Peterson, J. Srebric, and R. Berghage, Validation of predictive heat and mass transfer green roof model with extensive green roof field data, Ecological Engineering. 47 (2012), pp. 165-173. 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.06.012
D.J. Sailor, A green roof model for building energy simulation programs. Energy and Buildings. 40 (2008), pp. 1466-1478. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.02.001
R.M. Lazzarin, F. Castellotti, and F. Busato, Experimental measurements and numerical modelling of a green roof. Energy and Buildings. 37 (2005), pp. 1260-1267. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.02.001
F. Olivieri, C. Di Perna, M. D'Orazio, L. Olivieri, and J. Neila, Experimental measurements and numerical model for the summer performance assessment of extensive green roofs in a Mediterranean coastal climate. Energy and Buildings. 63 (2013), pp. 1-14. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.03.054
S. Mukherjee, P.L. Roche, K. Konis, and J.H. Choi, Thermal Performance of Green Roofs: A Parametric Study through Energy Modelling in Different Climates. PLEA 2013: Sustainable Architecture for a Renewable Future, (2013).
E. Alexandri and P. Jones, Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates. Building and Environment. 43 (2008), pp. 480-493. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.055
M. Santamouris, Cooling the cities - A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Solar Energy. 103 (2014), pp. 682-703. 10.1016/j.solener.2012.07.003
K. Vijayaraghavan, Green roofs: A critical review on the role of components, benefits, limitations and trends. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 57 (2016), pp. 740-752. 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.119
U. Berardi, A. GhaffarianHoseini, and A. GhaffarianHoseini, State-of-the-art analysis of the environmental benefits of green roofs. Applied Energy. 115 (2014), pp. 411-428. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.047
D.J. Sailor, A holistic view of the effects of urban heat island mitigation, in: S. Lehmann (Ed.), Low Carbon Cities: Transforming Urban Systems, 2014. New York, USA: Routledge.
A.M. Coutts, E. Daly, J. Beringer, and N.J. Tapper, Assessing practical measures to reduce urban heat: Green and cool roofs. Building and Environment. 70 (2013), pp. 266-276. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.08.021
X. Qin, A Green Roof Test Bed for Stormwater Management and Reduction of Urban Heat Island Effect in Singapore. British Journal of Environment and Climate Change. (2013), pp. 410-420. 10.9734/BJECC/2012/270422333409
S.S. Herrera-Gomez, A. Quevedo-Nolasco, and L. Pérez-Urrestarazu, The role of green roofs in climate change mitigation. A case study in Seville (Spain), Building and Environment. 123 (2017), pp. 575-584. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.07.036
S. Vera, C. Pinto, P.C. Tabares-Velasco, W. Bustamante, F. Victorero, J. Gironás, and C.A. Bonilla, Influence of vegetation, substrate, and thermal insulation of an extensive vegetated roof on the thermal performance of retail stores in semiarid and marine climates. Energy and Buildings. 146 (2017), pp. 312-321. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.04.037
P. Bevilacqua, D. Mazzeo, R. Bruno, and N. Arcuri, Experimental investigation of the thermal performances of an extensive green roof in the Mediterranean area. Energy and Buildings. 122 (2016), pp. 63-79. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.03.062
S. Cascone, F. Catania, A. Gagliano, and G. Sciuto, A comprehensive study on green roof performance for retrofitting existing buildings. Building and Environment. 136 (2018), pp. 227-239. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.052
S. Cascone, A. Gagliano, T. Poli, and G. Sciuto, Thermal performance assessment of extensive green roofs investigating realistic vegetation-substrate configurations. Building Simulation. 12 (2019), pp. 379-393. 10.1007/s12273-018-0488-y
I. Ziogou, A. Michopoulos, V. Voulgari, and T. Zachariadis, Energy, environmental and economic assessment of electricity savings from the operation of green roofs in urban office buildings of a warm Mediterranean region. Journal of Cleaner Production. 168 (2017), pp. 346-356. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.217
S.S. Moody and D.J. Sailor, Development and application of a building energy performance metric for green roof systems. Energy and Buildings. 60 (2013), pp. 262-269. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.02.002
D.J. Sailor and B. Bass, Development and features of the Green Roof Energy Calculator (GREC). Journal of Living Architecture. 1 (2014), pp. 36-58. 10.46534/jliv.2014.01.03.036
M. Deru, K. Field, D. Studer, K. Benne, B. Griffith, P. Torcellini, B. Liu, M. Halverson, D. Winiarski, M. Rosenberg, M. Yazdanian, J. Huang, and D. Crawley, U.S. Department of Energy commercial reference building models of the national building stock, Washington, DC, 2011. Available at: 10.2172/1009264
ASHRAE 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, 2004.
K. Field, M. Deru, and D. Studer, Using DOE commercial reference buildings for simulation studies, Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on the International Building Performance Simulation Association IBPSA-USA, (2010).
D. Winiarski, W. Jiang, and M. Halverson, Review of Pre- and Post-1980 Buildings in CBECS - HVAC Equipment, (2006). 10.2172/1013959PMC2660792
DOE - U.S. Department of Energy, Commercial Reference Buildings [Online], 2012. Available at: [Accessed 23/4/2022].
LabEEE - Laboratório de Eficiência Energética em Edificações, Catálogo de Propriedades Térmicas da Paredes e Coberturas, 4th ed., Florianópolis [Online], 2010. Available at:
DOE - U.S. Department of Energy, Engineering Reference [Online], 2016. Available at:
ABNT, NBR 15220: desempenho térmico de edificações (Author's translation: Thermal performance of buildings), Brazilian Assoc. Tech. Stand. (2005).
C.A. Alvares, J.L. Stape, P.C. Sentelhas, J.L. De Moraes Gonçalves, and G. Sparovek, Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 22 (2013), pp. 711-728. 10.1127/0941-2948/2013/050724622815
INMET - Brazilian Institute of Meteorology, Latitude, longitude and elevation spreadsheet data [Online], 2011. Available at: [Accessed 24/4/2021].
M.C. Peel, B.L. Finlayson, and T.A. McMahon, Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (2007), pp. 1633-1644. 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007
A. de S. Júnior, Aplicação da Classificação de Köppen para o zoneamento climático do estado de Minas Gerais (Author's translation: Application of the Köppen Classification for the climatic zoning of the state of Minas Gerais), Master (Thesis), Federal University of Lavras (Brazil), 2009.
EnergyPlus, Weather Data by Region All Regions: South America WMO Region 3 - Brazil [Online], 2011. Available at: [Accessed 23/4/2021].
  • Publisher :Sustainable Building Research Center (ERC) Innovative Durable Building and Infrastructure Research Center
  • Publisher(Ko) :건설구조물 내구성혁신 연구센터
  • Journal Title :International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development
  • Volume : 13
  • No :4
  • Pages :414-435
  • Received Date : 2022-09-13
  • Accepted Date : 2022-10-25
Journal Informaiton International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development
  • scopus
  • NRF
  • KISTI Current Status
  • KISTI Cited-by
  • crosscheck
  • orcid
  • open access
  • ccl
Journal Informaiton Journal Informaiton - close