• General Article

    Self-compacting concrete containing high volume palm oil fuel ash: cost, sustainability, and applications
    Belal Alsubari, Payam Shafigh, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Haider Hamad Ghayeb and Shagea Alqawzai
    This work conducted laboratory studies to assess the utilization of treated palm oil fuel ash to produce self-compacting concrete (SCC) in terms … + READ MORE
    This work conducted laboratory studies to assess the utilization of treated palm oil fuel ash to produce self-compacting concrete (SCC) in terms of its cost and sustainability. Two types of palm oil fuel ash namely treated palm oil fuel ash (T-POFA) and modified palm oil fuel ash (MT-POFA), were used as cement replacements. The SCC specimens were prepared with 0%, 50%, and 70% replacement (by mass) of OPC with T-POFA and MT-POA at a constant W/B ratio of 0.35. Fresh properties and compressive strength tests of SCC were performed and investigated. In addition, the cost and sustainability of SCC including high volumes of T-POFA and MT-POFA were assessed. The results demonstrate that replacing OPC with T-POFA and MT-POFA slightly improved the fresh properties of SCC as well as increased the compressive strength at later ages. In addition, the concrete specimens incorporated in 50% treated POFAs have significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) approximately 32% for SCC with 50% T-POFA and 41% for SCC with 50% MT-POFA as well as lowered costs. The results suggest that T-POFA and MT-POFA can be successfully used as cement substitutions up to 70% to develop sustainable and cost-effective concrete. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Effect of low molarity alkaline solution on the compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer concrete
    Tan Shea Qin, Nor Hasanah Abdul Shukor Lim, Teng Zhang Jun and Nur Farhayu Ariffin
    The escalating of cement production had significant effect on greenhouse gases emission, thus innovation of geopolymer concrete is crucial to reduce the … + READ MORE
    The escalating of cement production had significant effect on greenhouse gases emission, thus innovation of geopolymer concrete is crucial to reduce the environmental impacts. Besides, high concentration of alkaline solution not only exhibits corrosive nature, but also increases the cost of construction. Therefore, this research studies the engineering properties and effect of elevated temperature on fly ash-based geopolymer concrete using low molarity alkaline solution. The alkaline solution used in this research is sodium hydroxide (NaOH) combines with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) with different molarity of 2M, 4M and 10M. The binder to solution ratio of 0.45, NaOH mixed with Na2SiO3 at mass ratio of 2.5 and binder to aggregates with proportion of 1:3 was fixed. Test specimens was prepared and tested at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. Results show that with reduced alkaline solution molarity, the compressive strength reduced by 45 and 55% for geopolymer with 4M and 2M, respectively. However, the compressive strength exhibits are within the normal strength geopolymer concrete with comparable density and workability. Therefore, it can be concluded that low molarity geopolymer concrete can be applied in construction due to more environmentally friendly and lower cost. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Preventive measures of struck-by accidents at the construction site: Perspectives from construction personnel in johor
    Yap Wan Heong, Nor Haslinda Abas, Muhamad Hanafi Rahmat and Hairuddin Mohammad
    Struck-by accidents are among the main contributor to fatality number in the Malaysian construction industry. From the standpoint of construction safety professionals, … + READ MORE
    Struck-by accidents are among the main contributor to fatality number in the Malaysian construction industry. From the standpoint of construction safety professionals, this study explores the main preventive measures for struck-by accidents at the construction site. The data for this study was gathered through the questionnaire distributed to construction site safety workers in Johor, Malaysia, and about 116 answered questionnaires were received. Data were analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII) and Spearman’s rank correlation. The main preventive measure factor identified was related to training. This study provides eye-opening findings in terms of the weak correlational relation between the views of safety personnel and the most effective preventive strategy. This research raises awareness of the problem, and more action should be made to lower the fatality rate in struck-by-object accidents. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Assessment of acid attack on concrete containing spent garnet as partial sand replacement
    Ahmed Mokhtar Albshir Budiea, Yee Hau Chong, Shahrul Niza Mokhatar, Khairunisa Muthusamy and Mohamed Abdel kader IsmaiI
    Excessive sand mining for concrete production and disposal spent garnet waste from industrial activity causes environmental degradation. These degraded materials need to … + READ MORE
    Excessive sand mining for concrete production and disposal spent garnet waste from industrial activity causes environmental degradation. These degraded materials need to be inclined with other ways such as being a substitution of fine aggregate thus, preserving the environmental resources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the durability aspect of concrete containing spent garnet in acidic environment. Spent garnet was used as partial sand replacement with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in each of the concrete mixes designed respectively. Initially, the water absorption test was conducted on sets of 3 water-cured concrete cubes for the plain concrete and also for each percentage of spent garnet concrete mixes. Furthermore, the durability tests under 5% of hydrochloric acid and 5% of sulphuric acid solutions were conducted. Sets of concrete specimens which were 3 set of 28 days water-curing specimens for each percentage of spent garnet in each type of acid immersion have been evaluated respectively. Additionally, another set of concrete specimens containing 3 cubes for each spent garnet content was cured in water for 56 days for the comparison purposes. At the end of the study, the highest percentage of water absorption was concrete mix of 20% sand replaced with spent garnet (C20). Other than that, the stronger average concrete strength of concretes from both acids with the achieved target compressive strength was concrete C20 which having 30.8MPa and 19.3MPa for each acid, respectively. The concrete containing 20% of spent garnet had better acid resistant in terms of visual assessment not only towards sulphuric acid attack but also towards hydrochloric acid attack. Conclusively, the utilization of spent garnet in concrete mixture could bring good expectation as partial sand replacement for construction industry resulting of conserving the natural resources. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Contributing factors to the change in travel mode choice after COVID-19 in Korea using bivariate probit model
    Sangjae Lee, Seongmin Park, Samgyu Yang, Juneyoung Park and Jaeyoung Lee
    After the global pandemic of COVID-19, many people were afraid of an unknown disease without a cure, Travelers’ behavior has changed due … + READ MORE
    After the global pandemic of COVID-19, many people were afraid of an unknown disease without a cure, Travelers’ behavior has changed due to the government’s policy and people’s risk perception. The goal of this study is to analyze the data obtained through the survey and find the mode choice factors that influenced the selection of transportation changed due to COVID-19. The data needed for analysis were collected through a survey on the selection of transportation before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, at the peak time (the third pandemic in Korea from November 2020 to February 2021), and after the peak. In order to analyze the correlation between travel mode choice and individual tendency, bivariate probit model was developed. This study found that (1) due to the spread of COVID-19, private cars and private transportation are reduced, and public transportation is greatly reduced. (2) behavior changes were different depending on the type of work and working conditions. (3) behavior changes were different depending on the perception of public transportation. In conclusion, this study can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and help policy decision according to the travelers’ behavior in a different pandemic situation than before. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Highlighting the corrosion mechanisms of corroded plain carbon steels using the atomic force microscopy
    Prvan Kumar Katiyar, Rita Maurya and Prince Kumar Singh
    The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of the fraction of pearlite, the role of interlamellar spacing, and … + READ MORE
    The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of the fraction of pearlite, the role of interlamellar spacing, and the pearlite colony size on the corrosion behavior of different carbon steels (0.002%C, 0.17%C, 0.43%C, and 0.7%C) and four different variants (coarse, medium, fine, and very fine) of 0.7%C pearlite steels. All the microstructures have been developed using suitable heat treatment processes and the polarization tests were carried out in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion mechanisms and extent of dissolution of all the steel specimens have been discussed with the aid of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) topographic images and found that the overall corrosion rate has mainly been governed by the combined action of the fraction of pearlite, pearlite colony size, interlamellar spacing and fineness of the microstructures. The extent of dissolution of the various constituents phases has also been examined by section analysis using the AFM images. Therefore, this technique can be employed to signify the differential micro-dissolution behavior of the different fineness of the microstructures as well as various constituents phases present in the corroded steel. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Challenges and new trends in infrastructure life cycle cost analysis
    Hamid R. Soleymani and Mohamed Ismail
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is a decision support tool that is used by politicians, investors, managers, and engineers to select the … + READ MORE
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is a decision support tool that is used by politicians, investors, managers, and engineers to select the best alternative for investments or infrastructure projects. This paper will focus on the applications of LCCA for infrastructural engineering and will present challenges and new trends in LCCA. Several examples of LCCA analyses for transportation infrastructure projects and more specific for the selection of best paving materials (asphalt concrete or Portland cement concrete) and pavement treatment alternatives will be explained. Reliability and accuracy of any LCCA depends on many factors in this process. Some important factors that impact the output of this process could be: estimated costs, activity times, analysis periods, and how to consider future uncertainties such as inflation. The impact of these factors and their attributes on LCCA results will be discussed. A new trend in LCCA is to consider the impact of environmental, social, and users’ costs; however, the complexity of these inputs and how to determine their associated costs are immense challenges. It is critical that infrastructure engineers be aware of capabilities and limitations of any LCCA. Any decision-making tool like LCCA has its limitations; therefore, infrastructure engineers must also consider other complementary decision support systems such as project management tools such as risk analysis to select the best alternative for their projects. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
  • General Article

    Architectural typologies of school outdoor spaces by cases study of the school design guidelines
    Choulwoong Kwon
    The main aim of this paper is to reveal the importance of outdoor spaces in a school and so to classify different … + READ MORE
    The main aim of this paper is to reveal the importance of outdoor spaces in a school and so to classify different types of transitional spaces with case studies of school design guidelines. Outdoor spaces are one of the typical school features that are different in function to the rest of the building, catering for physical education. Adjacent areas are normally the immediate boundary areas of the school buildings; these are often green areas for planting or where benches are provided as resting places. This area can also be used as a circulation area or as extended classrooms if enclosed by fences or trees. The different types of transitional spaces can be defined by the relationship between buildings and outdoor spaces. An outdoor space can be enclosed and include walls, roofs and floor but at least one side should be exposed to the outside air. Depending on the form of enclosure and layout, they can be categorised into four basic types: attached, recessed and enclosed as well as in-between types. The case studies show the ways in which architects have tried to connect outdoor spaces with the indoor buildings thus promoting the use of external spaces as a part of school activities and also enhancing the school aesthetics. - COLLAPSE
    30 June 2022
Journal Informaiton International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development
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